Investigation of non-point and point source pollution and its case studies in Beijing-Miyun Water Conservatory

Title of project: Investigation of non-point and point source pollution and its case studies in Beijing-Miyun Water Conservatory


Project Executing Agency: Green Student Forum (GSF)


Project Abstract: Since 2012, GSF has been working on several programs including Youth Water guards and Community Investigation, in Xiwangzi village, nearby upper-reach of Miyun Reservoir. Through 2-years works, We find that there are many environmental problems in Bai River and Baimaguang River(Part of Upper-reach of Miyun Reservoir) , and most of the problems are caused by massive mining development(Point source pollution) and agricultural fertilizers(Non-point source pollution). Some resulted negative influence from these problems might be traced to the undrinkable water found in the village nearby the mining site, or strewed fertilizers wastages besides the river. The Project is aimed to find out really causes of these problems, to know the severity of negative influence, and finally to utilize feasible and do-able methodologies, like public participation and field investigation, to alleviate the negative influence at the most and regulate the pollution. We assume that at the end of the project, Non-point source pollution could be stopped and Beijing citizen could be motivated to realize and care the water environment around them.


Project Purpose:

(1)To find out the causes of pollution by studying cases of non-point and point source pollution

(2)To urge the pollution be regulated given on information from cases studies.

(3)To search for new reservoir-protecting model and provide insights for future work.


Project Programming: The project combines the case studies of non-point and point source pollution with fieldworks in order to find new reservoir-protecting model. The procedures are following: at first studying cases of non-point and point pollution, then searching for solutions to these problems, finally summarizing the information gathered before to find new reservoir-protecting model.


Brief description about Non-point and point source pollution in Miyun Water Conservatory:


Established in 1960, Miyun Reservoir is the main supplier for daily drinking water of Beijing, whose water supplies are accounted as one third of total supply of Beijing. Miyun Reservoir is in the northeast of Beijing and 70km far away from Beijing city(13km away from Miyun Xian). The storage capacity of the reservoir is 4 billion cubic meters, however, the real capacity is only 1.3 billion cubic meters due to the consecutive drought lasting for 10 years. There are main two supplementary rivers flowing into the Reservoir: Bai River and Baimaguang River. Miyun Reservoir is classified into first-grade protection zoon, and its adjoining areas are classified into second-grade protection zoon.


Two cases of the project occur at Xiwangzi village and Fengjiayu village, nearby Bai River and Baima River, upper-reach of Miyun Reservoir. Two villages are both located in second-grade protection zoon, whose countrymen make their living by planting nuts or working in mining company. After planting nuts, the countrymen massively utilize fertilizers, which is harmful to local water environment.


  • Point Source Pollution:

Beijing Yunye mining cooperation company is located at the intersection of Xiwangzi Village and Fengjiayu village. According to the information gathered before, the mining company started open mining (Now gradually transforming to undergraduate mining) from 1986. Mining company drained water from Baimaguang River for mining purpose, and created a pool for restoring wasted water.


Through community investigation, GSF Volunteers learned that the time period when water quality changed negatively corresponds with the time period when Mining Company was established and was running. Thus, GSF presumably concluded that Beijing Yunye Cooporation Company is responsible for local water pollution.


From the precedent cases, GSF found that mining wastage, if not properly disposed, could form a stable source pollution to pollute underground water. More severely, the wastage also will produce many poisonous chemicals such as Iron Oxide (Soluble in water to cause the damage of eco-system, and mixed in air to harm human respiratory organs), Sodium Oxide (1-2mg/kg dosage could kill a person). Needless to say, these mining wastage result in a long-lasting negative influence on soil and water.


According to Provisions on the Aministration of the Prevention and Control of Pollution in Protected Areas (Miyun Reservoir)for Drinking Water Sources by the National Environmental Protection Agency, in first-grade protection zones Construction of projects irrelevant to water extraction facilities is forbidden; Piling and depositing of industrial residues, urban wastes, dejection and other hazardous wastes are be forbidden; In the second grade protection zones(i) For ground water sources where aquifers are paretic water Establishment of chemical, electroplate, leather, paper-making, pulp-making, smelting, radioactive, printing and dyeing, dyestuff, coking and oil refining and other severely polluting enterprises are forbidden, and those existing shall be ordered to eliminate pollution within a limited time, transfer to other business or move to other places; Construction of piling sites and transfer posts of urban wastes, dejection, eutectic, toxic and hazardous wastes is forbidden, and those existing shall be ordered to move to other places; Usage of unpurified waste water to irrigate farmland shall be forbidden, and existing waste water irrigation farmland shall be order to use clean water for irrigation; and Piling sites for chemical raw materials, minerals and oils and other toxic and hazardous mineral products shall take measures to prevent pollution caused by rain and seepage. Obviously, in second-grade protection zoon, any company who are involved in mining activities is legally forbidden. These mining activities are not only illicit, but also are hazardous to public heath.



  • Non-point Pollution Source:


 GSF Volunteers, after visiting several villages, observed that almost every kilometer piled of fertilizers could be found on the road and some of them even were dumped directly beside the river. Later, GSF Volunteers learned from local countrymen that this is because the farmer used to dilute the fertilizer with water from the river or the well. Thus the closer to water source, the more fertilizers found. The most commonly used fertilizers in local is cyhalothrin made by Beijing Zhongnongda Biological Technology Cooperation Company. This pesticide is a moderate toxic pesticide with the standard usage 50ML per hectare, which is really harmful to aquatic creatures especially fishes. After internet searching, GSF found that this pesticide has very long half-life, and even after 20 days there were still 90% pesticide remained, that is, 2ML per hectare. Furthermore, because the pesticide is often used in rain season, it is very easy for pesticide to be mixed with the water to pollute the soil. Another commonly used pesticide is “Baicaogu”, a strong poison with 90% death rate, which is prohibited in other countries. It also permeates into the soil. Obviously, these pesticides would, if not disposed, damage local water environment.


Investigation of Non-point and point source pollution:


  • Investigation of point source pollution:

This investigation is divided into two parts. The first part is to find out the entire procedure of minerals production, and utilized scientific methodologies to estimate its damages. The second part is to interview with countrymen who live nearby the mining site, to ascertain how the relationship between the countrymen and mining company and how countrymen think about the mining company.


The mine is always full of resources, and is very fragile part of the nature. Under modern mining development, its resulted consequences could be following: deforestation, drought, Water loss, Soil Erosion. Thus, this investigation is concerned with four aspects:


  1. Loss of vegetation and its restoration: Open mining usually will render the vegetation in the surface lost. Under related regulations, the mining company has to restore the surface by re-planting new vegetation.


  1. Water Pollution: Mining usually will produce the mineral wastages, which could be oxidized or eroded into harmful chemicals. These wastages might permeate into surface and pollute underground water source.


3.The relationship between local citizens and the mining company: GSF recruits volunteers to interview with local country men


4.Others: other related problems, such as air pollution


Throughout this investigation, GSF will be affiliated with students and their mentors of USTB(University of Science and Technology Beijing) to work on water analysis, and finally to get scientific conclusion.


  • Investigation of non-point source pollution:


  1. Case Study: GSF will search the related laws of fertilizer usage in local, and specific information about fertilizer (its guideline, chemical half-life, and negative effects on human body, and the like).
  2. Comprehensive survey on the fertilizer usage: At first, GSF will interact with local countrymen to find out how much dosage of fertilizer the countrymen in Xiwangzi Village used to apply, how frequent its usage is, and why the countrymen use fertilizers. At second, GSF will conduct filed-visits, record pesticide wastage situation, measure water quality.



Discussion of possible solutions for each case:


Based on above investigation, GSF will use following strategies to deal with the problems:


  • To apply for Environmental Information Disclosure: applying for environmental analysis of the mining company from Miyun Environmental Protection Agency
  • To urge the mining company improve and compensate: using media to propaganda, and pressing the government to regulate the mining company
  • To raise the public awareness on local environment: Inviting experts and professors to teach local countrymen environmental knowledge, and to invoke them to live friendly with the environment
  • To stimulate the countrymen to start up new organic nuts plantation: Investigating possibilities and potential market for selling organic nuts
  • To increase public participation and media oversee: Inviting Beijing Citizens to visit the mining site and plantation and to introduce them the potential problems caused by the mining site and plantation; Using onlie-media, such as wechat, weibo, and website, to propaganda; Affiliating with other organization such as, The Natural University, and Beijing Water Conservation Education Foundation, to press the local government to regulate the pollution.

(6) The role of each stakeholders in this project?


Other involved parties or people Role in the project  What they do in the project?
Beijing Water Conservation Education Foundation, The Natural University, Yanshan Academy Affiliated Organization BWCEF provides human and other resources, coordinating GSF to start later programs; Yanshan Academy provides the avenue for holding events or activities, and helps GSF to get well with local coutrymen.


Beijing Yunye Mining Cooperation Company Investigated Subject Accept being investigated and negotiation issues.
Volunteers (University students or Beijing Citizens) Participants of the Project Organize events and activities; participate in them and help GSF finish investigation of non-point and point source pollution cases.
Local countrymen Investigated Subject or Participants Participate into ecological-experience activities and other events; increase awareness on local pollution issues; finally press government to regulate the pollution. Their approve determine the effectiveness of the project.


Experts in the field of ecology and agriculture. Consultants   Train local countrymen in the training program; Help GSF to investigate both non-point and point source pollution cases.
Local government Investigated and interviewed subject Provide advises to the project; Coordinate with GSF to start the training programs.


Summary of case studies and Discussion of new reservoir-protecting model:


Summary: Deep-research on the mining and pesticides caused pollution will add more insights for future Miyun-Reservoir protection.


Discussion of new reservoir-protecting model: this will be conducted by following steps:


  • Figure out what local countrymen demand? Is it feasible to start-up organic nuts plantation?


  • Find out the alternatives for the pesticides.


  • Use scientific methodologies to collect data, and then analyze the data to get conclusion


  • Invite experts and public to join the workshop to discuss the possibilities of new reservoir-protecting model


Affiliation with GSF:


  1. Yan-Shan Academy: GSF have been partnering with Yan-Shan Academy Since 2012 to work on projects including: Youth Water Guards Program. From 2007, Yan-Shan Academy dedicated to Natural Education, keep contact with local countrymen. In 2013, GSF started off first project with Yan-Shan Academy to search for possible ecologically friend residence for Xiwangzi Village.


  1. Beijing Water Conservation Education Foundation: BWCEF is the first organization devoted to protect the reservoir in China. In 2013, BWCEF found water conservation foundation to push environmentally friendly development of reservoir. GSF and BWCEF will work together on case of the non-point pollution source.


  1. The Natural University: TNU is an environmental NGO in China and renowned for its fast-moving action to prevent potential environmental pollution. GSF and TNU will work together on case of the point pollution source



Possible risks and its solutions:


Possible risks Solutions
Local countrymen resists the project so that the project cannot proceed Re-analyze the demand of local countrymen, and re-create useful strategies
Contact with Poisonous Chemical, confrontation between the mining company and organization. Estimate risk rate,provide possible protective measures ,tutor participants
Local Government don’t cooperate with GSF Learn local environmental laws, and negotiate with government to continue the project
Incomprehension on specialized theories related with agriculture and mining results in misconducts and any other problems. Collecting enough basic information for further investigation before starting the project; Inviting experts to teach GSF staff related specialized knowledge.
Beijing Yunye Mining Cooperation Company doesn’t cooperate, and intently sabotage the project. Be friendly and kindly to re-negotiate with the mining company. Through the negotiation, GSF will invite more people to press the mining company to concede.


What will be the long-term conservation consequences of this project?


1.Since Miyun-reservoir was established in 1960, Miyun County started to return farmland to ecosystem to protect Beijing’s drinking water source. Local countrymen nearby Miyun-reservoir started to plant chestnuts and walnuts, and these nuts were marked as organic food. Because of high cost for planting organic nuts and restricted market, local countrymen later didn’t continue planting organic nuts. GSF believes that the case study of pesticides usage will lay an foundation for organic nuts plantation.


2.In the upper reach of Miyun-Reservoir, there are as much as 4 or 5 mining site. GSF believe that the result of case study of mining’s environmental influence could be also applied to other mining site or company, and the project’s public participation also could increase local countrymen’s sensitivity.


  1. Beijing city is severely lack of water, and Beijing Citizens rarely are aware of local water crisis, and they don’t even know the regions around Miyun-Reservoir, which provide their daily drinkin g water, have many potential water pollution. GSF believe that the project is conductive to raise the public awareness, especially Beijing citizen’s and Local countrymen’s, toward Beijing water crisis and future challenge on water environment.


How will these results be measured?


The project’s desire output and indicators are following:


When What Desire Output Indicators
2015.03 -2015.07 Investigation of both non-point and point source pollution cases:(1)

Searching related theorems and researches on both cases, and for non-point source pollution case, GSF will make promotional materials for publicity.

(2) Collecting water samples and other specimen for both cases

(1)Report about usage of pesticides and its damage, and report about the negative  environmental influence caused by the mining company.


(2)Promotional materials for disposing harmful chemicals

(1)Whether the report is scientifically effective, the report

can test the hypothesis, and help later actions


(2)Whether local countrymen could understand promotional materials

2015.07-2015.10 Searchin and applying solution(一):

(1)Applying for environmental information documents of the mining company: to urge the environmental protection agency to release some documents including EIA and drain outlet information .(2)Raising public awareness on the environmental issues: to start training programs in non-point and point source pollution cases.

(3)Public participation and media supervision: Help to clean Pesticides residues , to organize events and activities, and to apply for environmental information documents to be exposed in public.

(1)Get the mining company’s environmental information documents, including EIA and drain outlet information.

(2)2~3 times training programs in which at least 50 countrymen take part

(3)3~5 times public activities, its records, and its public feedbacks.

(1) Whether GSF follows standard procedure to apply for environmental information, and whether these information could be got


(2)Whether the programs could attract enough countrymen to take part in , and how their feedback are

(3)How the feedback of public participation is

2015.10-2015.12 Searching and applying solution(二)

(1) For point source pollution, GSF wil negotiate with Yunye Mining Cooperation Company to take actions stopping the pollution source or compensating for its negative effects.


(2)Exploring the possibilities to start up new organic farms or plantations,finding the countrymen who interested in it and working on to build some sample farm or plantation.

(1)Yunye Mining Cooperation Company admit its faults to cause pollution,and promised to clear the pollution and compensate for its results.


(2)Make feasible selling plans for organic nuts,and find out 1 or 2 countrymen to start organic plantation by 2016.

(1) How Yunye mining cooperation company’s attitude and later action are

(2)To what extant local countrymen approve this project, and whether we can find out the countrymen who interested in building organic farm or plantation.

2015.12-2016.03 (1)Summarize non-point and point source pollution cases


(2)Organize the workshop of discussing new reservoir-protecting model

(1)Summary reports of non-point and point source pollution cases

(2)Solicit opinions from related stakeholders and collect information about new reservoir-protecting model

(1)Whether Summary reports fit into reference


(2)Whether the workshop and final summary could be used to make next-year plan



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